is metamorphic rock formed when sandstone is subjected to heat and pressure.
Pyroxene MineralsPyroxene Minerals
are a group of chain silicate minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Phytoplankton BloomsPhytoplankton Blooms
are caused by an explosive growth rate of plankton in surface waters.
Bear AttacksBear Attacks
- Knowing how to react to a bear encounter or attack could save your life.
Mineral LusterWhat Is Luster?
Luster is the light-reflecting characteristics of a mineral specimen.
is the primary ore of zirconium and a gemstone that is available in many colors.
is a diverse material. This gallery includes photos of sand from around the world.
Crystal HabitCrystal Habit
is the external shape displayed by a crystal or an aggregate of crystals.
Hardness PicksHardness Picks
- Test for hardness with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
- Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
Mineral HardnessMohs Hardness Scale
is a set of reference minerals used for classroom hardness testing.
- A porous limestone composed almost entirely of fossil debris.
Largest HurricanesLargest Hurricanes
Are they determined by wind speed, value of damage, most deaths?
Mount EtnaMount Etna
- The most active volcano in Europe continues an eruption that started in 2001.
Rock and Mineral KitsRock & Mineral Kits
The best way to learn about rocks and minerals is with specimens!
Volcanic ExplosivityO'Neal Men's Athletic
- Rating volcanic eruptions based upon the volume of tephra ejected.
The Acid TestThe Acid Test
- Geologists use dilute hydrochloric acid to identify carbonate minerals.
Blue FlamesBlue Flames
and the largest highly acidic lake in the world at Kawah Ijen Volcano.
Ruby and SapphireRuby and Sapphire
are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
Types of MapsTypes of Maps
- Explore some of the most popular types of maps that have been made.
Teacher ResourcesTeacher Resources
- K-12 resources for teaching about earth science.
Tallest TsunamiTallest Tsunami
- A wave with a run-up height of 1720 feet occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
Rock TumblersRock Tumblers
- All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
Mars MeteoritesMars Meteorites
Mars rovers have found dozens of meteorites while exploring the red planet.
Geology ToolsGeology Tools
Rock hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, hardness picks, gold pans.
- the only important ore of mercury. Used in pigments until its toxicity was realized.
Utica ShaleUtica Shale
is a major source of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in PA, OH and WV.
Fool*s GoldFool*s Gold
is a name used for pyrite when its brassy color fools people looking for gold.
OpalsPictures of Opal
- A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
US Diamond MinesUS Diamond Mines
- Did you know that diamonds have been mined in the United States?
- Descriptions, photos, articles, properties and uses for common minerals.
American GemstonesMined in America
- Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
Watch out for Ticks!Ticks
are a problem for geologists in some areas. Learn to recognize and avoid them.
Google Earth - FreeFree Google Earth
software allows you to browse seamless world satellite images. Free.
are amorphous naturally-occurring inorganic solids that lack crystallinity.
is a metamorphic rock with properties that make it suitable for a variety of projects.
Underwater VolcanoHawaii*s Next Island
could be growing in the Pacific Ocean right now. Its name is Lo*ihi.
is a purple silicate mineral, found only in Russia, used as a gem material.
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- a manganese mineral used as an ore, a pink gem and an ornamental stone.
is a feldspar mineral that sometimes exhibits an iridescent play-of-color.
is the third hardest mineral. It is also the mineral of ruby and sapphire.
Methane HydrateMethane Hydrate
deposits contain more fuel value than all other fossil fuels combined.
Colored DiamondsColored Diamonds
are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
Wall MapsWall Maps
- Wall maps of the world, continents, states and the USA.
June 6th 1912Novarupta
- The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century occurred in the U.S.A.
What is Geology?What is Geology?
The study of Earth materials, structures, processes and life over time.
- The intrusive igneous rock that underlies continents and countertops.
- Used as an ore of copper, a pigment, ornamental stone and gem material.
look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
Ethiopian OpalEthiopian Opal
- The new opal heavyweight that might give Australia a run.
- The rock that has quickly transformed the oil and gas industry.
Geology BooksGeology Books
- A variety of books for reference, field trips, reading and more.
- Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses, and diamond discoveries.
is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
Grape AgateGrape Agate
is a popular mineral specimen with the color and the shape of a bunch of grapes.
What Is The Moho?What Is The Moho?
The Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the mantle/crust boundary.
DeLorme AtlasTopo Maps
- The DeLorme Atlas is an entire state of topo maps in one convenient book.
Petrified WoodPetrified Wood
is a fossil that forms when silica replaces and infills the cavities of wood.
Gem SilicaGem Silica
is a blue chalcedony colored by copper. It is the rarest and most valuable chalcedony.
An extrusive igneous rock with a high silica content, produced from granitic magma.
Expansive SoilExpansive Soil
causes more damage than floods, hurricanes & tornadoes combined.
Plate TectonicsPlate Tectonics
- Articles and maps about plate tectonics and the interior of Earth.
Lapis LazuliLapis Lazuli
- a metamorphic rock and the most popular blue opaque gemstone in history.
UV Mineral LampPortable UV Lamp
- Short and long wave UV for fluorescent mineral viewing.
Tallest MountainTallest Mountain
- Everest has rivals in tallness, altitude and distance to the center of Earth.
Ant Hill GarnetsAnt Hill Garnets
- tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
Fire OpalFire Opal
is a transparent to translucent opal with a yellow, orange or red background color.
- Rocks that were once parts of planets or large asteroids.
Rock ArtRock Art
- People have been marking on rocks for thousands of years.
Crater of DiamondsCrater of Diamonds
- The only diamond mine in the world where you can be the miner.
Debris FlowsDebris Flows
are moving masses of loose mud, sand, soil, rock and water.
- The primary ore of titanium and source of most titanium dioxide.
Waterproof PaperWaterproof Paper
- Don't take chances with your field notes and maps. Use waterproof paper.
Cave of the HandsCave of the Hands
is a cave where ancient people painted hands about 9000 years ago.
is the transparent variety of quartz with a yellow to orange to reddish color.
Field CoursesField Courses
- Over 80 field courses for undergraduate geology students.
Rare Earth ElementsRare Earths
- Special materials used in electronics, defense, medical & many other products.
Herkimer DiamondsHerkimer Diamonds
Doubly-terminated quartz crystals used as specimens and gems.
- A bluish-green gem material that has been used for over 6000 years.
Gifts That RockGifts That Rock
- What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store?
Fluorescent MineralsFluorescent Minerals
and rocks glow with spectacular colors under ultraviolet light.
Rocks on MarsRocks on Mars
Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
- Articles about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and eruptions past and present.
Storm SurgeStorm Surge
can be the most damaging and deadly aspect of a hurricane.
- The most important ore of iron. A source of mineral pigment since prehistory.
100+ Gemstones100+ Gems
- Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
Don*t Go To JailKnow the Rules
before removing rocks, fossils or minerals from public or private property.
- The most important ore of copper for over five thousand years.
What is a Geyser?What is a Geyser?
Photos and information about geysers in many parts of the world.
- Abundant in Earth*s mantle. A constituent of meteorites. The gem peridot.
What is a Maar?What is a Maar?
The second most common volcanic landscape feature on Earth.
was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
is a variety of limestone formed from fine-grained marine sediment known as ooze.
Rock SaltRock Salt
is a sedimentary rock composed of the mineral halite. It has many uses!
Lightning Strikes MapLightning Strikes Map
by NASA shows the worldwide distribution of lightning activity.
- an extremely colorful mineral and gem material.
Cinder ConesCinder Cones
are the smallest, simplest, and most common type of volcano.
Mineral RightsMineral Rights
- Who owns the minerals under your land? Who wants to buy them?
Uses of TalcTalc
is a soft mineral used in cosmetics, paper, paint, ceramics and many other products.
Horizontal DrillingHorizontal Drilling
has opened new resources and significantly improved productivity.
Largest VolcanoesLargest Volcano
- That title is shared by Tamu Massif, Mauna Kea and Ojos del Salado.
Uses of MarbleThe Uses of Marble
are numerous and diverse. You will be surprised by how it is used.
Tallest WaterfallAngel Falls
in Venezuela is the tallest waterfall in the world - it is 3212 feet tall.
is a chromite host rock, a source of diamonds and a possible carbon dioxide sink.
Mount VesuviusMount Vesuvius
- geology, history, maps, facts and more about the Vesuvius eruptions.